Represented as a percentage of moisture absorption by weight of material in a specified time.
Veneer material applied over an approved backing and secured with an approved bonding material.
Loose gravel, crushed stone, or river-washed pebbles in varying sizes, shapes, and colors are considered aggregates. Angular aggregates are generally machine-crushed, but may occur naturally. Rounded aggregates usually have been tumbled smooth in rivers and streams. Color, hardness, and durability will vary.
A mechanical device for securing stone to a support or structure. Types for stonework include those made for flat stock (strap, cramps, dovetails, dowel, strap and dowel, and two-way anchors) and for round stock (rod cramp, rod anchor, eyebolt and dowel, flat-hood wall tie and dowel, dowel and wire toggle bolts).
Antico™ or Leather Finish:
a honed finish is applied and worked with diamond brushes for a soft matte look.
A curved stone structure resting on supports at both extremities used to sustain weight, or to bridge or roof an open space.
A natural or applied line on the stone from which all leveling and plumbing are measured.
Masonry having a face of square or rectangular stones that have split-faced, rockfaced, smooth, or other finish surfaces. May be laid in random patterns or courses.
Ashlar Building Stone:
Hand- or machine-split stone cut into square or rectangular pieces that are specified, industry-approved height, width, and length, or randomly sized.
a hard, dense, dark volcanic stone composed chiefly of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine. Often has a glassy appearance. Basalt is usually fine-grained due to rapid cooling of lava on the earth’s surface.
A natural mineral deposit concentrations that can be seen as intensified spots or lines of color, lack of color or areas with compromised polishing ability.
The top or bottom of a joint; natural bed-surface of stone parallel to its stratification.
Staining action caused by corrosive metals, oil-based putties, mastics, caulking, sealing compounds, or environmental minerals in the stone.
The proper positioning of adjacent stones by their predominant color and shape to achieve an overall, uniform pattern.
a dense, hard, fine-grained and commonly feldsparic sandstone or siltstone of characteristic blue, gray, plum and/or brown colors. Bluestone splits readily along original bedding planes to form thin slabs. Bluestone is not a technical geological term, but is considered to be a variety of flagstone.
Used in varying percentages to anchor or bond stone veneer to backing material. Bond stones are generally cut to twice the bed thickness of the material being used.
Boulders can be naturally formed, weathered, or water-worn stones taken from fields, mountains, or rivers, or quarried stones with sharp or angular edges. Boulders are larger than 12” and weigh from 50 pounds to several tons. The boulders pictured here weigh approximately 50-60 pounds and are 1.5’ to 2’ in diameter.
A sandstone of characteristic brown or reddish-brown color which is a result of a prominent amount of iron oxide
The finish obtained by brushing the stone with a coarse, rotary-type wire brush.
A mechanical process which produces textured surfaces by hitting the surface of the stone with a pneumatic device to leave indentations. Textures vary from subtle to rough.
A white or milky-like streak occurring in stone. It is a joint plane usually wider than a glass seam, has been re-cemented by deposition of calcite in the crack, and is structurally sound.
The movement of liquid in the interstices of a porous material as a result of surface tension; the phenomenon responsible for dry materials sucking moisture above the normal water level.
A column cap.
Tightening or making a joint leak-proof by sealing with an elastic adhesive compound.
A wall in which the inner and outer wythes are separated by an air space but tied together with metal ties.
An opening in joints of masonry that allows the passage of air and moisture from the wall cavity to the exterior. (Venting)
A dry powder mixture of lime, clay, and gypsum that is finely ground. When it is missed with water, a chemical reaction occurs that causes it to harden.
— Portland Cement Type I is a general-purpose cement most often used by masons for pavements, patios and sidewalks, reinforced concrete bridges and masonry mortar.
— Portland Cement Type II, often referred to as modified Portland Cement, generates less heat and at a slower rate than Type I, although it has been resistance to sulfate than Type I. Type II is usually specified for large piers, heavy abutments, and heavy retaining walls.
Stone used as the exterior material in non-load-bearing wall construction that contains other materials.
Clean Stone is a crushed stone washed so that little to no dust is present in the finished product. A variety of grades and sizes are available. Clean Stone is used for a variety of commercial and residential purposes, including as an asphalt course-base mix, as treatment for road or driveway surfaces, or for use in ready-mix concrete. Other applications include septic fields, bedding for large pipes, filter stone, dry wells, concrete-slab bedding, railroad ballast, and residential drainage.
The ability of a rock mass to break along natural surfaces and seams.
Usually used for edging, cobblestone commonly describes paving blocks, usually of granite composition, generally cut in rectangular or square shapes. Other edging materials include river rocks, ashlar, or small building stones.
Provision for the dimensional change of different parts of a structure due to shrinkage, expansion, temperature variation, or other causes to avoid the development of high stresses. (Expansion/Contraction Joint)
A flat stone used as a cap on walls or around the perimeter of patios and pool decks.
A limestone composed predominantly of unaltered shells of fragments of shells loosely cemented by calcite, generally very coarse-textured with a high porosity. The term has been applied principally to a very porous shell rock of Eocene age quarried in Florida.
A horizontal range of stone units the length of the wall.
A setting style using stones of the same length or approximately the same heights. Horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are staggered. Percentage of rise and heights size can be modified to suit preferences.
A name commonly assigned to a variety of Tennessee Sandstone or Quartzite flagstone products that offer a color range of pink, tan, buff, rust and red. Crab Orchard is not a technical geological term.
Crusher Run is a crushed stone product that varies in size from a powder consistency to about one inch pieces. Crusher Run gets best results when compacted in place. It is commonly used as sub-base and base for highways, roads, driveways, and parking lots. It is also suitable as select backfill, road shoulder material, and under concrete curbs and gutters.
This includes all stone cut or machined to given sizes, dimensions or shapes, and produced in accordance with working or shop drawings developed from structural drawings. (Dimensional Stone, Dimensioned Stone, Sized Slab, Sized Stone, Trim Stone).
A term used to describe slabs of varying size, finish, and thickness used in fabricating treads, risers, copings, borders, sills, stools, hearths, mantels, and other special purpose applications.
A course or layer of impervious material which prevents vertical penetration of water by capillary action.
One or more coatings of a compound impervious to water applied to a surface above grade.
Stone selected, trimmed, or cut to specified shapes and sizes. Face and edge finish is as specified.
A recess cut under a sill or projecting stone to throw off water, preventing it from running down the face of the wall or other surface, such as a window or door.
A stone wall constructed one stone upon the other without mortar. Generally used for retaining walls. (Dry Stack Wall)
Stone masonry technique of fitting and trimming to construct free-standing walls, veneer walls, or structural walls, with little or no mortar showing.
Dust and screenings are crushed stone products finely graded for pathways and walkways, as well as tennis courts, bicycle trails, horse rings, stables, and barns. Screenings are also excellent as ice and snow tracking grit, as backfill for underground cable and storage tank bedding, in slurry seal and asphalt mixes, and in concrete block.
The final surface applied to the edge of stone. See the Edge Profile section for more information.
A white crystalline deposit on masonry surfaces typically caused by soluble salts carried through or onto the stone by moisture or water which has occasionally come from brick, tile, concrete blocks, cement, mortar, concrete, and similar materials.
A rough, dull mark produced by acid eating away at a polished surface.
European Old World (Faces and Edges):
A setting style distinguished by the combination of faces and edges both showing on the veneer with no mortar exposed.
A socket that grips a drilled hole in stone by expanding as the bolt is screwed into it.
A decorative concrete finish with pieces of stone aggregate purposefully exposed for color and texture in a concrete slab.
Stone masonry technique where mortar joints are visible and usually vary from ½” – 2” in width.
Dimensional stone manufactured and ready for installation.
The exposed portion of stone. Face can also refer to the edge treatment on various cutting stock materials.
The final surface applied to the face of stone during fabrication. See the Face Finish section for more information.
Loose stone separated from ledges by natural processes and scattered through or upon the soil.
Fieldstone Building Stone:
3” – 9” thick stone found on top of the ground with exposed surface weathered and often covered with moss and lichen; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
Fieldstone Thin Stone:
1”- 3” thick stone found on top of the ground with exposed surface weathered and often covered with moss and lichen; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
Fieldstone Wall Stone:
2” – 4” thick stone found on top of the ground with exposed surface weathered and often covered with moss and lichen; stacking surfaces are mostly flat; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
Powder, dust, silt-size, and sand-size material resulting from processing crushed stone.
Final surface applied to the face of stone during fabrication. Often refereed to by the process used to obtain the desired texture. Finish is independent of color, but will influence the intensity of the color. (Surface treatment, Texture, Honed, Polished, Sand-Saw, Thermaled, Tooled)
A small visible line on the surface of the polished slab, which rarely indicates or affects the structural integrity of the product.
Thin slabs of stone used for patios, sidewalks, walkways, etc. Thin stones from stratified deposits as well as thin sawed mill ends are used for the same purpose. (Flagging)
Stone used for interiors as a pedestrian wearing surface.
A setting style characterized by a dominant amount of mortar showing; approximately 90% of the stone is covered by mortar.
the edge is worked to create a full radius edge.
A grinding process to make all pieces of material to be used together a uniform thickness.
a common and widely distributed type of stone formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. Gneissic stones are usually medium to coarse foliated.
Beginning course of material at the grade level, generally waterproofed with a damp check or damp course.
a fine to course-grained igneous stone generally consisting of quartz, feldspar and rock, formed by volcanic action and cooled slowly under great pressure. it is the hardest building stone with a very dense grain, making it virtually impervious to staining. Granite takes a highly polished finish that will endure even in inclement environments.
gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent.
Includes stones metamorphosed or otherwise changed to assume a distinctive greenish color owing to the presence of one or more of the following minerals: chlorite, epidote, and actinolite. Green Stone is an old field term for metamorphosed igneous rock derived from basalt and other dark volcanic rocks. No present commercial production is known.
Mortar of pouring consistency. Coarse grout, used for wide grout spaces 2 inches (5 cm) or more, consists of one part Portland cement, not more than 2 to 3 parts sand, and not more than 2 parts pea gravel. Fine grout, used in narrow grout spaces, consists of 1 part Portland cement and 2 ¼ to 3 parts sand.
the edge is worked to create a half radius edge.
The end of a stone tolled to match the face of the stone; does not need to be exposed in application to be referred to as the head of the stone.
The stone in front of the fire chamber which often extends on either or both sides of the front of the fire chamber.
this finish is a smooth, satin surface without reflections or gloss that shows the full color of the stone. it is produced using the same equipment used in the polished finishes; however, the honing process ends prior to the buffing stage.
One of three main classes of rock (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic), solidified from a molten slate. Granite is the igneous rock most commonly utilized in construction.
1” – 5” thick stone relatively flat, smooth-surfaced, and randomly shaped; face size varies by material from 1 square foot to 12 square feet per piece; because of their cleft and thickness, some are more suited for use as stepping stones.
An arch with horizontal or nearly horizontal upper and lower surfaces. (Flat or Straight Arch)
The space between stone units. May be visibly filled with mortar or in a drystack application, will have no visible mortar joint.
The final finish given to a joint before the mortar dries. See the Joint Styles section for more information.
Detailed dimensions, location, and configuration of stones or stone units and joints related to the structure. (Jointing Pattern)
Any of the small timbers or metal beams arranged parallel from wall to wall in a structure to support a floor or ceiling.
The last wedge-shaped stone placed in the crown of an arch to bind the whole.
A setting style technique of fitting and trimming stone so mortar is not visible; may be installed with or without mortar. This technique is usually suitable only for solid stone structures.
a sedimentary stone composed of calcite and dolomites. Limestone is non-crystalline and possesses very uniform composition, texture and structure. Ranges in color from white to gray and does not take a polish. Limestone exhibits erosion over time and is subject to discoloration and disintegration.
Linear (Course Rubble):
A setting style using stone of approximately the same height. Horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area, but may be slightly staggered from strength. Vertical joints are staggered.
The block of stone spanning the width of an opening, such as a doorway or window. (Head)
Usually flagging material joined together and slightly warped or twisted causing one or more edges to be higher or lower than the adjoining material.
manufactured quartz (composed primarily of quartz blended with resin composites) can mimic the look of natural stone.
a metamorphic stone composed of metamorphosed limestone. Most marbles are infused with impurities such as dolomite, silica or clay, providing variations in color and significant movement. Marble is significantly softer than granite and therefore is subject to greater wear, staining and etching by acidic substances.
MasterCut™ Natural Veneer Stone:
¾” – 1 ¼” natural stone crafted from full thickness natural stone products of various shapes and sizes; precision cut to produce a flat back and corners making it lightweight and easy to install; available in several varieties including fieldstone (shown, near right) and ledgestone (shown far right); special order options also available.
A thin sheet of metal nailed to rafters, joists, or studding as a groundwork for masonry application.
One of three main classes of rock. Rock altered in appearance, density, or crystalline structure by heat or pressure into a different rock. Slate and marble are metamorphic rocks most commonly utilized in construction.
The change or alteration in rock caused by external forces, such as deep-seated heat and pressure.
a stone composed essentially of mica and quartz. Splits readily along the micaceous films and has smooth or slightly uneven surfaces covered with lustrous plates of muscovite or biotite. in addition to quartz there may be a small amount of feldspar.
A mixture of cement, lime, sand, and water used to bond masonry units.
— Type M mortar is a high-strength mortar recommended for use below the grade where it will be in contact with the earth. Made up of 1 part Portland Cement and ¼ part lime.
— Type N A mixture of Type N Masonry cement or Portland/Lime cement with proper amounts of water and sand to achieve a mortar with a compressive strength of no less than 750 pounds per square inch. Generally used for exterior, above grade load-bearing or non-load bearing applications.
— Type S mortar is usually specified for exterior use above the grade and especially where there are lateral forces on the wall. Type S is used for both reinforced and unreinforced masonry. It develops a high tensile bond and is often used where mortar is needed between facing and backing.
Mosaic (Random Rubble):
A style of stone masonry construction with no definite pattern; most of the stone is irregular in shape. There are no running horizontal or vertical mortar joints.
Natural Cleft Finish:
generally pertains to stones that are formed in layers in the ground. When such stones are cleaved or separated along a natural bedding plane, the remaining surface is referred to as a natural cleft.
a sedimentary stone in which the crystalline structure is so minute that is appears almost fluid. Onyx is a very soft stone that is somewhat brittle. it needs to be installed where it will not be subject to hard wear. This beautiful stone is characterized by its translucence, and can actually be backlit for striking effects.
¾” – 2” thick stone relatively smooth-surfaced (natural cleft) and cut into squares and rectangles; widths, lengths, and thicknesses have nominal differences of (+/-) ¼”; standard sizes range from (+/-) 12”x12” to 24”x 36” in 6” increments and cut to allow for ½” joints.
Stone used for exteriors as a pedestrian wearing surface.
“pock marks” of varying size on the surface of a slab. Pitting is the result of the tightness of the material grain and the material’s ability to accept a polish finish.
The final filling and finishing of mortar joints.
this finish is the smoothest and finest available in stone, characterized by a highly reflective, mirror gloss finish. The full color, depth and crystal structure of the stone is visible. A polished finish seals surface pores making it nearly impervious to staining, burning or scratching.
a variety of igneous stone consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. The apian way is paved with porphyry — it is also know as ”the stone of kings” due to the rarity of its use in structures unless that of royalty.
The location of an operation where a natural deposit of stone is removed from the ground.
Quarried Building Stone:
3” – 9” thick stone quarried and split to appropriate size; usually has one or more angular or squared-off corners; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
Quarried Thin Stone:
1” – 3” thick stone quarried and split to appropriate size; usually has one or more straight edges and angular corners; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
Quarried Wall Stone:
2” – 4” thick stone quarried and split to appropriate size; stacking surfaces are mostly flat; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
a form of metamorphic stone, this compact granular quartz rock is derived from sandstone. it was formed in water deposited sediments and consists of sand grains which have been cemented together.
Stone at the corner of a wall emphasized by size, projection, rustification, or by a different finish.
A setting style where the coursing (a horizontal level of stone approximately the same height) is interrupted by taller stones.
The height of stone; generally refers to veneer stone.
River Rock Building Stone:
3” – 9” thick stone water worn, rounded, and found in river and stream beds; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
the edge is worked by hand to create a rough, chiseled look to the edge.
A surface finish accomplished by the gang sawing process.
A finish attained by mechanically rubbing the stone for a smoother face.
Dimensional stone used for building purposes, mainly walls and foundations, and consisting of irregularly shaped pieces, partly trimmed or squared, generally with one split or finished face, and selected and specified within a size range.
a sedimentary rock made of compacted sand and cemented with calcium, silicone or ferrous minerals. Sandstone varies in color, from red to yellow to white, based on the presence of other minerals. Sandstone is soft and easy to quarry and shape, but is susceptible to erosion and deterioration from air pollutants.
a finished obtained from the process used in producing dimensional stone. Varies in texture from smooth to rough and is dependent upon the materials used in sawing. specific processes include diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn and shot sawn.
the schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic stones. The individual mineral grains in schist, drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure, can be seen by the naked eye. schist is characteristically foliated, meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. Schists are frequently used in building houses or walls, as many are quite durable and strong.
The first coat of mortar applied against the block or substrate. The ortar should be scored before the material dries so the second coat will bond tightly to it.
Making a veneer joint water-tight or leak-proof with an elastic adhesive compound or application of surface treatment to prevent staining of finished stone.
1. Referring to granite countertops, the line created by the joining together of two pieces of stone. 2. Referring to various types of natural stone products, a crack or fissure in the horizontal bedding plane of stone.
One of three main classes of rock. Rock formed from materials deposited as sediments, such as sand, silt, and marine organisms. Sandstone and Limestone are the sedimentary rocks most commonly utilized in construction.
semi-precious countertops are made by individually cutting many semiprecious stones and then binding them together to form a continuous solid surface. The colors and finishing effect depend heavily on the types semi-precious stones used.
A hydrous magnesium silicate of igneous origin, generally a dark green color with markings of white, light green, or black. One of the hardest varieties of natural building stone.
An organopolysiloxane product applied to masonry materials for water repellency.
A flat stone used under windows, doors, and other masonry openings.
as its name implies, it is primarily composed of silt sized particles. Siltstones differ significantly from sandstones due to their smaller pores and higher propensity for containing a significant clay fraction. Siltstone lacks the fissility and laminations which are typical of shale. Siltstones may contain concretions. Unless the siltstone is fairly shaly, stratification is likely to be obscure and it tends to weather at oblique angles unrelated to bedding.
A lengthwise cut of a large quarry block of stone produced by sawing or splitting in the first milling or quarrying operation. A slab has 2 parallel surfaces.
a very fine-grained metamorphic stone derived from sedimentary rock shale. Slate is characterized by easily split layers which allow for the production into roofing, pavers and other dimensional stone.
a soft stone composed mainly of talc and chlorite that has a greasy or soapy feel. Chemically inert and highly heat retentive, soapstone has many applications including hearths, treads, woodstoves, laboratory tops, countertops and as a carving material.
The finish produced by planer machines plus the removal of objectionable tool marks. Also known as smooth planer finish and smooth machine finish.
A property of stone used to describe relative freedom from cracks, faults, and similar imperfections in the untreated stone. One of the characteristics encountered in fabrication.
Split Face (Strip Ashlar):
Usually split face is sawed on the natural bedding plane. It is split either by hand or with a machine so the surface face of the stone exhibits the natural quarry texture. The two main groups are sawed-bed split face is normally produced by using quarried blocks of stone sawed into slices or slabs of a thickness that becomes the height or rise of the stone. Natural-bed split face is produced by splitting naturally stratified or ledge stone into strips approximately 4” wide. This comes in a range of rises from 1” to 5”, instead of definite rises like sawed-bed split face.
the edge is cut to create a straight edge and thermaled by flame to create a rough-textured surface.
the edge is sawn straight to create a lightly textured surface.
the edge is cut to create a straight edge and sanded to soften the texture of the edge’s surface.
An enframement. Typically referring to area around the firebox.
A detailed pattern or drawing showing exact dimensions to be fabricated.
this finish is achieved by applying a high temperature flame to the surface of the stone. This flame fractures crystals on the face, leaving a rough-textured finish. Highly skid resistant, the thermaled finish is an excellent choice for walking surfaces.
A thin modular stone unit of small size used on floors or interior walls.
The acceptable range of variation allowed in maintaining a specified dimension in machining a piece.
a sedimentary stone created by the deposit of carbonate minerals from hot mineral springs. Carbon-dioxide rich water percolates through the deposit and creates open pores and cavities. This stone makes a striking flooring material and can be made available with filled or unfilled cavities.
A flat stone used as the top walking surface on steps.
¾” – 2 ½” thick stone relatively smooth-surfaced and machine tumbled to make the edges and corners smooth and rounded-off; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
Tumbled Wall Stone:
1” – 3” thick stone machine tumbled to make the edges and corners smooth and rounded-off; stacking surfaces are mostly flat; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
A material, usually in thin sheet form or combined with a sheathing material, designed to prevent the passage of moisture through a wall or floor with the aim of preventing condensation within the wall.
A layer, seam, or narrow irregular body of mineral material different from the surrounding formation.
A non-structural facing of stone attached to a backing for ornamentation, protection, or insulation. Veneer should support no load other than its own weight and possibly the vertical dead load of veneer above.
A bonder or metal piece which connects wythes of masonry to each other or to other materials.
A condition when stone twists or bends out of shape. This may occur with flagstone materials taken from the ground and used in their natural state. To eliminate warping in stone, it is necessary to further finish the material by such methods as machining, honing, or polishing.
A projection of lowest masonry on the outside of a wall slightly above the ground. Often a damp course is placed at the level of water table to prevent upward penetration of ground water.
Natural alteration by chemical or mechanical processes due to the atmosphere, surface waters, soil and other ground waters, or temperature changes.
Opening Placed in mortar joints of facing material at the level of flashing to permit the escape of moisture.